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Northeast Bat Working Group

2006 Annual Meeting

Please plan to join us for the 2006 NEBWG meeting in East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. The meeting will include a field trip to a hibernaculm and a day and a half of presentations of projects by various bat researchers with regional interest. We expect presentations on new Indiana bat roosts in NY, NJ, WV and MD. New bat Ibat mines and gates in PA. Summer Ibat mysteries in VT. New Leibii roosts. Updates on wind farm survey methods and perhaps some preliminary results of acoustic work. There will be gear o'plenty to play with including harp traps, net poles, IR illuminators, Pettersson bat detectors, and SonoBat software.

Meeting Dates: 10-12 January 2006 (Tentative times: 12:00 noon on 10th – Noon on 12th)

Hot News:

Meeting AGENDA now available! Download here NOW!

NEW field trips are being offered! See below...

Bring your wallets because Speleobooks will be on hand with their impressive collection of bat and cave books, gift items, and apparel! Obviously they can't bring everything. If you see something on the Speleobooks online store you are curious about, drop Emily an email to ensure she packs it for you!

Due to a hefty schedule of presentations, please note registration has been moved up to NOON TUESDAY with state briefings beginning at 2 PM.

2006 NEBWG attendance will be record setting, 78+ registrants!

The Budget Motel may be booked for rooms. Contact Cal if you need more info. There are other hotels at the Marshalls Creek and Delaware Water Gap exits on I80, just east of the Budget Inn. (You must exit at Delaware Water Gap to avoid the tollbridge, there are no hotels east of Delaware Water Gap.)

The Budget Motel has WI-FI...wa-hooo!

Older News:

To facilitate planning and logistics, pre-registration is requested! Download the PDF registration form, or the MS Word form and register via email. Registration is only a paltry $5.00.

10th – Biology Building, East Stroudsburg University (Registration starts at noon- State reports at 2 PM)
10th – Budget Motel (6:00 PM Hiber program and field trip and/or social)
11th – Biology Building, East Stroudsburg University (8 AM)
11th – Budget Inn/JR Grill social, (7 PM)
12th – Biology Building, East Stroudsburg University (8 AM)

Motel: Budget Motel ($49.90/night) / J.R. Green Scene Restaurant (JR’s Grill) Interstate 80, Exit 308, E. Stroudsburg, PA 18301
570/424-5451 or 800-233-8144 (NE U.S.) or 888/788-2843 (Nationwide)
Make your reservations ASAP. Block of rooms saved under PA Game Commission, NEBWG.

Activities (check at registration of last minute changes):
Tuesday, January 10: Noon-4:00 PM
Location: Biology building, East Stroudsburg University. Registration is open, sign up for field trip. State reports begin at 2:00 PM. Dinner is on your own.

To Be Announced- Approx. 6:00-7:00 PM
Program/Field Trip: Hibernacula identification and study techniques
Location: Biology building, East Stroudsburg University. The PA Game Commission and the NJ Division of Wildlife will present a program on what constitutes a good hiber site and some procedures on sampling methods. Immediately following this there will be a field trip available to up to one or more of three hiber sites nearby.

Location: Biology building, East Stroudsburg University. Immediately following there will be a briefing on the hiber sites to be surveyed, and a caravan to the field location will depart.

What to know: You must sign up during registration. There are three possible sites accommodating everyone, but two trips are limited. Trips are simultaneous and cannot be doubled up. Expect to carpool as much as possible. The trips collectively demonstrate three kinds of bat hibernacula management, so choose which one most interests you! All sites are relatively easy to access, short in length, dry, and require no unusual equipment. Please have your personal cave gear in hand at 6:00 PM or already to go in your carpool vehicle as we will attempt to leave directly after the presentation.

Trip 1: ACOE Tunnel, NJ. Melissa Craddock of the NJ Fish and Wildlife will take approximately 12 people across the Delaware River to a gated, managed hiber site. Expect a few hundred bats relatively up close. Each participant is required to wear a helmet and complete volunteer forms available at registration. Please notify John Chenger if you will need a helmet. Two lights are required per person. Those using "AA" batteries should bring extra. Expect a 40 minute drive and a short walk to the tunnel. Time underground will be less than 2 hours in a 40°F tunnel. Participants are expected to be in good physical condition. There is ankle-deep water in the entrance area and expect to get your feet wet initially. Bring a change of shoes/boots.

Trip 2: Lehigh Gorge Tunnel, PA. John Chenger of Bat Conservation and Management, Inc. will take up to 20 people to an abandoned railroad tunnel in the Lehigh Gorge State Park. Plans exist to modify this tunnel and make it more attractive to bats. Expect a 1 hour drive, a short walk from the parking area, and a 30° tunnel. We expect a low number of bats but will have an extension ladder on hand for a close look. Each participant is required to wear a helmet and complete volunteer forms available at registration. Please notify John Chenger if you will need a helmet. Two lights are required per person. Those using "AA" batteries should bring extra. Consider bringing at least a change of shoes if carpooling, though the tunnel should be dry.

Trip 3: Lost River Caverns, PA. Chris Sanders of Sanders Wildlife will take an unlimited number of folks to a nearby commercial cave, Lost River Caverns. Chris will demonstrate how and why some caves really should be managed for the cave....not for bats. It is unlikely that few if any bats will be observed. We have secured a special NEBWG "after hours" trip and group rate of only $5.00, pay at the door. Expect a 35 minute drive and an hour tour in 50° limestone cave, plus gift shop. Helmets are not required.

Alternate activity: There will be a social gathering remaining at JR's Grill after the field trip departs for those who would rather stay warm.

Download the 2006 registration form PDF or MS Word file and register via email!
Tunnel similar to Lehigh Gorge Tunnel
Tunnel similar to Lehigh Gorge Tunnel
Calcite formations in Lost River Caverns

Wednesday, January 11: 8:00 AM-Dinner
Location: Biology building, East Stroudsburg University. Registration is open all day. The morning will be dealing with wind farm issues. Lunch is on your own, several restaurants are within walking distance, and the university cafeteria is available. Sessions resume after lunch with individual presentations. Dinner is on your own.

After Dinner Wednesday Night Meeting
Location: The meeting room in the Budget Motel/J.R. Grill. After dinner (on your own) there will be an informal after meeting meeting for those who simply haven't had their fill of bat gab. There will be videos presented of previous bat expeditions, perhaps impromptu presentations on past projects, or smaller works in progress that maybe folks didn't want to formally show off yet. If you have a video, photos, or anything to share (in any format on any device), please bring it in! Snacks will be available and cold beverages can be purchased.

Thursday, January 12: 8:00 AM-Noon
Location: Biology building, East Stroudsburg University. Additional individual presentations, future project planning, and special meetings.

NEBWG 2006 Directions:
To get to ESU and the Budget Motel, take I - 80 to the East Stroudsburg exit, Exit 308. Both East and West exit ramps empty out on the same side of Prospect Street. Registration on the 10th will be at the Budget Motel Lobby beginning ~4:00pm.

To get to the Budget Motel:
Turn left on Prospect Street from I-80 ramp and you'll see the Budget (JR’s Grill) right in front of you.

To get to Campus & Biology Building:
Turn right on Prospect Street from I-80 ramp (away from the Budget Motel). You'll pass by a Texaco station at 1st traffic light on the right; continue straight and you'll come to campus. There will be a 2nd light at the main entrance to campus; keep going straight. Turn right at the first street after the main entrance; this is Normal Street. Make a left turn at the next street, Ransberry Street, then go down about 100 feet and turn right into the main parking lot. You can park anywhere in this large lot. The Biology building is the brick building in front of this lot.

Northeast Bat Working Group 2006 Presentations
(*) denotes designated presenter. For information only- not necessarily in order of appearance. An agenda is available for download here.

Individial state reports from ME, NH, CT, VT, MA, MD, NY, PA, NJ, VA, RI, DE, OH, WV, KY and others
Presented by an attendee representing their home state
Jacques P. Veilleux - New Hampshire; Melissa Craddock - New Jersey; Al Hicks - New York; Cal Butchkoski - Pennsylvania; Scott Darling - Vermont; James Kiser - Kentucky; Dana Limpert - Maryland; Karen Morris - Maine

Hibernacula Identification and Study Technique
John Chenger*, Melissa Craddock, & others
The PA Game Commission and the NJ Division of Wildlife will present a program on what constitutes a good hiber site and some procedures on sampling methods and safety considerations. Immediately following this there will be a field trip available to up to one or more of three gated hiber sites nearby in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Program: Tuesday, January 10, 6:00 PM at JR Grill/Budget Inn meeting room, more info near the top of this page.

Application of Night Vision Imagers for Bat Studies
Bruce Sabol* and Chester Martin*
Studies of nocturnal animals require special imaging equipment to see and record their activities. Three fundamentally different types of “night vision” imaging equipment have been employed in the study of bat activity. The basics of these different imagers are reviewed and examples of their use in bat studies are presented. Considerations involved in capturing and interpreting imagery of bat emergences are discussed. Further, we present procedures and reliability estimates for an automated emergence counter, using digital image processing technology. Other potential uses, including population estimates during torpor and hibernation, are discussed.

Wind Turbines and Bat Research: Purpose, Standardization and New Technology
Greg Turner

A simple method of quantifying transmitter signal strength
Carl Herzog
Radio transmitters have the potential for varying considerably in signal strength, especially among the small 0.3-0.5 gram models used in bat research. It is in the researcher’s best interest to make sure that units are functioning within acceptable limits before incurring the expense of capturing and tracking the animals. This mini-workshop will demonstrate an inexpensive, uncomplicated means of quantifying transmitter strength in your own back yard. This workshop has been successfully tested on a sample of universally challenged biologists from NY, VT and the FWS. It can certainly work for you.

Comparative Ecophysiology in Bats: Seasonal and Stress-responsive Changes in Glucocorticoid
DeeAnn Reeder
My current research aims to understand reproductive behavior and physiology in bats within the context of their natural environment. My research has been particularly concerned with how animals adapt to both environmental and social stressors and how variations in this adaptability are related to changes in life history stage, reproductive state, and behavior. I will describe some of my previous research in little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) as well as my plans for comparative studies between little brown myotis and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Pennsylvania. Due to their exceptionally high energetic intake and output and their need to tightly balance energy resources over variable seasonal conditions, small temperate bats in their natural environment provide an excellent system in which to examine seasonal fluctuations in metabolic hormones, such as glucocorticoids (GC). Of particular interest are the physiological signals that drive the fattening and the increased locomotor behavior that occurs prior to migration and hibernation.

Spring emergence tracking of Indiana bats in NY State during 2005
Alan Hicks*, Mike Clark, Mike Cooper, Robyn Niver, Carl Herzog
Spring emergence tracking of Indiana bats was conducted at the Glen Park Caves, Jefferson County NY and the Walter Williams Complex, Ulster County NY during April of 2005. Animals were released at night and a circling aircraft determined their initial direction of travel. Subsequent day searches with aircraft located animals on their day roosts by searching in the direction indicated during the release night. We were able to locate 26 of 32 animals released at the Glen Park caves and 16 of 18 released from the Williams Complex. Glen Park animals stayed within 15 miles (24 km) of the release site, Williams within 40 miles (64 km). Most roost was located under 540 ft (180 meters) elevation. All but one of the 16 from the Williams roost was located in the same two areas as the sample of 11 animals we tracked during 2004. This is despite substantially different methods used to select animals for marking in each of the two years. Five were in very close proximity to roosts used by animals the previous year. One was found in the same tree and another in the same woodlot as animals tracked last year. Results to date suggest that the potential range of M. sodalis within NY appears to be limited, and the animals are not randomly distributed within that range.

Understanding the effects of wind turbine mortalities on bat populations using stable Isotope and genetic variability analysis.
Alan Hicks

Agencies responsible for addressing the effects of wind turbine mortalities on bat populations are faced with a nearly impossible task. Given the rapid pace of construction, the large number of turbines expected, and mortality rates observed thus far, it seems likely that population level effects on red (Lasiurus borealis), hoary (Lasiurus cinereus)and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) may occur before we have the resources, methodologies, or time, to determine base line population levels for these species. Stable isotope analysis of hair has the potential for determining the summer origin of animals killed by wind turbines. An analysis of the genetic variability of turbine killed bats at the DNA level may hold the promise of providing baseline estimates of the effective population size and population trends existing at the onset of the wind turbine event. Analysis of kills occurring several years later may indicate changes in population size or trends that could be directly linked to this new source of mortality. I am suggesting that regulatory agencies across the country require that developers pay for initial post construction monitoring, and allow the free access to sites by researchers. Collected specimens will be archived at a central location with samples available for this and other studies. Developers will pay for the storage and required analysis of recovered specimens on the project sites. In this manner, we may be able to establish the population level effects of wind turbines on bats, with the costs being incurred by those that are specifically causing the problem.

Developing an Automated Bat Counter for use at cave or mine entrances
Alan Hicks
In nearly every state in the Northeast, if not the country we suspect there are large numbers of bats wintering in caves or mines that cannot be entered, or are too dangerous to enter. Others are interested in verifying the results of winter surveys or determining the dates of spring emergence or fall arrival. The solution to all is an automated counter that could be installed and left unmanned through the spring or fall season , except perhaps to change batteries or download data. It seems reasonable that an automated counter comprise of two banks of light beam switches using inexpensive and existing technology, could tell us when, and in which direction, a bat passes, and keep track of the total number of animals entering or leaving a site. I suggest that we jointly fund, through a multi-state, and multi- regional SWG grant (or other sources) a contract with an engineering school (or perhaps a competition within or between schools) to design and build the hardware and software associated with the device to our specifications. The resulting design should make is relatively inexpensive and easy for any state to build as many systems as they would like.

Predictive modeling efforts in NY for small-footed and Indiana bat summer habitat
Jesse W. Jaycox, New York Natural Heritage Program
Poster Presentation

NY DEC A mark retention-survivorship study update
Alan Hicks, Nancy Heaslip, Calvin Butchkoski, Mike Clark*, Mike Cooper, and Carl Herzog
Although PIT tag marking holds great promise for use on a wide variety of bat species, we do not yet know the mark retention or survival rates associated with this technique. This is especially true for animals marked during the spring emergence or fall swarm, the only two periods when most cave bat species, including the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) are available to researchers in large numbers. This study is intended to determine the retention and survivorship rates of banded and Pit tagged animals marked during these periods. Animals were captured at the entrance of the Canoe Creek mine, Altoona PA and randomly selected to be marked in roughly equal numbers. They were marked with either a singly alloy wing band, two alloy wing bands, an alloy band and a PIT tag, or an alloy and plastic wing band. Animals were marked during August 16-18, 2004 (N=981) April 20-22, 2005 (N=715) and August 29, 2005 (N=225). Preliminary tabulation suggests that roughly 15 marked animals were recaptured at the mine entrance during April and August of 2005 among the roughly 6,000 to 8,000 bats that were handled. This might suggest a recapture bias; however, winter surveyors saw only about 30 banded animals among the 25,000 counted during the 2005 winter survey of the mine. It is clear that our recapture rates are too low at Canoe Creek to provide meaningful results, at least for animals marked during the fall. It is also clear that we either killed nearly every bat we handled, or there are a great many bats that visit the Canoe Creek Mine each fall that do not winter there. We have test banded several hundred animals at the Main Graphite Mine in the Adirondacks of NY in hopes of finding a friendlier place for recaptures.

The use of passive acoustic monitoring as a biological assessment tool for surveying migratory patterns of bats in relation to wind power development
Scott D. Reynolds, North East Ecological Services
Wind resource development has been growing more rapidly than any other energy sector, and the impact of this growth has finally reached the northeast. Concern over the potential impact of wind farms on bats, and in particular the potential risk of mortality for the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), has resulted in pre-construction surveys at several proposed wind farms in Vermont, New York, and Massachusetts. In 2004, we used passive acoustic monitoring at multiple high elevation ridge top sites during both the spring and fall migratory season. Data collected at these sites suggest that most of activity during the migratory period occurs at low heights (less than 5m above ground), although some bat activity was heard at turbine height (50m). The data suggest that hibernating migratory bats (Myotis spp.) and non-hibernating migratory tree bats (Lasiurus spp) differ in both the temporal and vertical spatial patterns. The ridge top sites surveyed in 2004 appear to have low levels of migratory activity at turbine height.

Predicting minimum habitat requirements of the Indiana bat in the Champlain Valley
Kristen Watrous, University of Vermont
Predicting potential habitat across a landscape is extremely challenging for rare species. Analyzing habitat requirements using partitioned Mahalanobis D2 methods avoid pitfalls commonly encountered when surveying elusive species that typically have small sample sizes and low detection probabilities because it is based solely on data collected at known species locations. Minimum habitat requirements are determined by examining a principal components analysis to determine habitat characteristics that are consistent across known locations. The goals of this study were to (1) document and compare the minimum habitat requirements of Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) in the Champlain Valley across 7 spatial scales and (2) map potential habitat for the species throughout the same area. We radio-tracked 24 female Indiana bats to their roost trees and across their nighttime foraging areas, and collected habitat characteristics at 7 spatial scales: 1) roost trees, 2) 0.1 ha circular plots surrounding the roost trees, 3) home ranges, and 4-7) 0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km, and 3km buffers surrounding the roost tree. Fifty roost trees were identified and found to be tall, large diameter trees with exfoliating bark, located typically at low elevations and close to water. Trees in the plots surrounding roost trees were typically smaller in dbh, shorter in height, and healthier than the central roost trees. Fourteen home ranges were found to be in areas of diverse, patchy land cover types that were close to water, with an east-facing aspect. Across all landscape extents, the total area of forest within roost tree buffers and the aspect across those buffers were the two most consistent features. Predictive maps indicated that suitable habitat ranged from 4.7% to 8.1% of the total area examined depending upon the number of components used, and was distributed throughout the Champlain Valley. However, information is needed on birth and survival rates to assess habitat quality in the region.

Daily and Seasonal Patterns of Bat Activity along Central Appalachian Ridges
Keith Lott, University of Maryland Center of Environmental Science, Appalachian Laboratory
For this study I attempted to identify the climatic variables that may influence bat activity along ridges in the central Appalachian Mountains. In 2004 and 2005 Anabat units were attached to fire/observational towers along forested ridges in the central Appalachians. The number of calls per night was compared to regional weather data collected at Department of Transportation sites located throughout the state. As of 17 November 2005 I have had 1128 survey nights across 6 locations. Over 51,300 calls have been identified as closely to species as possible. Though my study locations range over 2,277 km2, activity levels between sites seem to fluctuate simultaneously. This would indicate that some landscape scale variables are influencing the activity levels of bats along these ridges in this region.

Roosting Habits of Myotis leibii at the Surry Mountain Lake Dam in Southwestern New Hampshire
Jacques Veilleux, Franklin Pierce College

Indiana Bat Spring Migration Telemetry from Blair Conty, PA to Carroll County, MD
Cal Butchkoski*, John Chenger, Greg Turner, Chris Sanders, and Stacy Wolbert
n April 2005, a total of 6 Indiana bats were radio-tagged and released as they exited the Hartman Mine in an attempt to find additional local maternity roosts and/or follow them to more distant summer roosts. The initial plan was to release the radio-tagged bats around midnight with the plane in the air and ground vehicle strategically stationed on high points. The ground crew would track 1 to 2 bats and collect as much behavior information as possible. The aircraft would keep track of as many bats as possible. The project was successful in following migrating Indiana bats for a record 135 km (84 mi) and 148 km (92 mi) from a hibernaculum.

Summary of Bat Conservation and Management 2005 Survey Projects
Dana Borgstrom, John Chenger*, Matt Clement, Kaitlin Frantz, Kevin Rhome, Todd Sinander
In 2005 BCM participated in several winter surveys, one spring telemetry project, 5 acoustic surveys, 6 mist net surveys, 3 BCI workshops, two abandoned mine assessment projects, one mine mapping survey, and one unusual bat exclusion. Project locations were in PA, NY, WV, IA, NM, and AZ. This work will be briefly summarized.

State Wind Farm Bat Protocols & Monitoring Discussion
Scott Darling*, Greg Turner*, and an ensuing free-for-all

A number of presentations are rumored including but not limited to:

Buffalo Mountain Wind Project Update
43 more leibii in a bridge TN
in NY spring emergence tracking
VA spring emergence tracking
PA summer leibii roost telemetry
Reports from the North American Symposium on Bat Research (especially wind power)
Eric Britzke's stable isotopes
Martin Vonhoff's genetics report
WV Ibat summer roost telemetry

2006 Projects on the Burners:
VT roost hunt
Jamesville emergence
Missouri emergence
Stable idotope/genetics relating to the effects of wind power on bat populations
VT Ibat population assessment
Wind farm post construction standards with regards to speciman collection and analysis

NEBWG 2006, East Stroudsburg, PA
List of Registered Participants (1/4/06)

Elizabeth Annand ME Devine Tarbell & Associates
Robert T. Brooks MA U.S.D.A., Forest Service
Mike Burbank VT U.S.D.A., Forest Service
Cal Butchkoski PA PA Game Commission
John Chenger PA Bat Conservation and Management, Inc.
Carole Copeyon PA, US Fish and Wildlife Service
Matt Cote PA Garnet Valley School District
Melissa Craddock NJ NJ Fish and Wildlife, ENSP
Valerie Craig NJ, Flying Fur Website
Amie D'Angelo PA East Stroudsburg University
Scott Darling VT Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department
Emily Davis, NY, Speleobooks
Chris Dobony NY Fort Drum Military Installation
Barbara Douglas WV U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Bryon DuBois NJ Trident Environmental Consultants
Marilyn Eames MD U.S.F.W.S. Patuxent Research Refuge
Dan Feller, MD, MD DNR
Michael Fishman NY Stearns & Wheler
Eric Freidly PA Garnet Valley School District
Gary Fromert, Northeast Wildlife DNA Laboratory, E.S.U. PA
Greg Fuller, Community Energy, Inc.
Adam Gravel ME Woodlot Alternatives, Inc.
Grant Harter, PA
Nancy Heaslip NY NYS Department of Env. Conservation
Matt Heck, PA, Community Energy, Inc.
Al Hicks NY NY DEC
Erica Irvine, PA, Community Energy, Inc.
Kathy Irving PA Garnet Valley School District
Jesse W. Jaycox NY New York Natural Heritage Program
Shamus Keeler, Northeast Wildlife DNA Laboratory, E.S.U. PA
Chris Johnson PA The Eads Group
Jessica Kerns NY Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc.
Bill Kilpatrick VT University of Vermont
James Kiser KY U.S. Forest Service
Robert R. Kiser KY Gress Engineering
Christina Kocer CT CT Dept. of Env. Protection
Geoffrey Krukar CT CT DEP, Wildlife Division
Brian Laniewicz NY NYS Dept. of Health
Dana Limpert MD Maryland DNR
Angie Luis Pennsylvania State University PA
Matt Malhame, NJ, Trident Environmental Consultants
Keith Lott MD Univ. of MD Center for Env. Sci., Appalachian Lab.
Matt Malhame NJ Trident Environmental Consultants
Karen Morris ME Maine Dept. of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife
Robyn Niver NY U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Cassandra Ostroski NJ Bucknell University
Steve J. Pernick Skelly and Loy, Inc PA
Marlo Perdicas OH Metro Parks, Serving Summit County
Trevor Peterson ME Woodlot Alternatives, Inc.
Dawn Race, POZ Environmental
DeeAnn Reeder PA Bucknell University
Scott Reynolds NH North East Ecological Services
Kevin Rhome WV Bat Conservation and Management, Inc.
Lance Risley NJ William Patterson University
Heather Rogers DE Bucknell University
Bruce Sabol U.S. Army ERDC MS
Chris Sanders PA Sanders Environmental Inc.
John L. Sease, Green Mt. & Finger Lakes Nat'l. Forest VT
Nancy Simmons, NY, American Museum of Natural History
Todd Sinander PA Philadelphia Zoo
Ken Smith PA The Eads Group
Aura Stauffer PA DCNR, Bureau of Forestry
Leslie Sturges VA Bat World NOVA
Cindy Tibbot, PA, USFWS State College
Joe Torres VT U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Green Mt. Natl. Forest
Colleen Troiani PA Bat World Pocono
Greg Turner PA Game Commission PA
Jon Van De Venter PA U.S. Army Picatinny Arsenal
Jacques P. Veilleux NH Franklin Pierce College
Susi von Oettingen NH U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Mike Warner, NY, Speleobooks
Kristen Watrous VT University of Vermont
Kevin Wenner PA PA Game Commission, NE Region
Sandy Whidden, PA, East Stroudsburg University
Julie A. Winner Skelly and Loy, Inc PA
Sandy Whidden PA East Stroudsburg University
David Yates, Biodiversity Research Institute ME
Stacy Wolbert PA East Stroudsburg University
Andrew Zellner PA East Stroudsburg University
Chris Zimmer NY Green Mt. & Finger Lakes Natl. Forests

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